Causes of Hepatomegaly & Splenomegaly

CAUSES OF HEPATOMEGALY HEPATOMEGALY Massive: ♦        Metastases ♦        Alcoholic liver disease with fatty infiltration ♦        Myeloproliferative disease ♦        Right heart failure ♦        Hepatocellular cancer Moderate: ♦        Haemochromatosis ♦        Haematological disease – e.g. chronic leukaemia, lymphoma, myeloproliferative disorders ♦        Fatty liver – e.g. secondary to diabetes mellitus ♦        Infiltration – e.g. amyloid Mild: ♦        Hepatitis ♦       …

Hyperaldosteronism in Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a chronic liver disease that is the result of damage to liver tissue with scarring of the liver (fibrosis – nodular regeneration) causing progressive decrease in liver function, excessive fluid in the abdomen (ascites), bleeding disorders (coagulopathy), increased pressure in the blood vessels (portal hypertension), and brain function disorders (hepatic encephalopathy). Excessive alcohol…

Histopathology Slides (Microscopic Pathology)

Caseous Necrosis Tubercular lymphadenopathy T.B. Lymphadinitis Squamous cell papilloma Squamous cell papilloma Malignant melanoma Rhinosporidiosis Pleomorphic adenoma Rhinosporodiosis Squamous cell papilloma Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous cell carcinoma Malignant Melanoma Acute appendicitis Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder ALL (Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia) Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma Appendicitis ALL (Acute Lymphocytic…

Red Lesions of the Oral Mucosa-Differential Diagnosis, Clinical Features and Treatment

Red lesions are a large, heterogeneous group of disorders of the oral mucosa. Traumatic lesions, infections, developmental anomalies, allergic reactions, immunologically mediated diseases, premalignant lesions, malignant neoplasms, and systemic diseases are included in this group. The red color of the lesions may be due to thin epithelium, inflammation, dilatation of blood vessels or increased numbers…

Herpes Simplex Virus 1 infection : Herpes Labialis

Herpes labialis (Orolabial Herpes/ Cold Sore/ Fever blister) is an infection of the lip by herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The sores around the mouth typically heal within 2–3 weeks, but the herpes virus remains dormant in the facial nerves, following orofacial infection, periodically reactivating (in symptomatic people) to create sores in the same area of…

Rheumatic fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease

Definition:Rheumatic fever (RF) is an acute, immunologically mediated, multisystem inflammatory disease involving heart, joints, CNS, skin and other tissues that occurs a few weeks after an episode of group A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis. Acute rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the cardiac manifestation of RF and is associated with inflammation of the valves, myocardium, or pericardium. Rheumatic…

Acute intermittent porphyria

The PorphyriasGroup of inherited or acquired disorders of heme productionClassification of the PorphyriasMultiple ways to categorize porphyrias:Hepatic vs. Erythropoietic: Organ in which accumulation of porphyrins and their precursors appearsCutaneous vs. Non- cutaneousAcute and non-acute forms Acute:Aminolevulinate dehydratase deficiency porphyria (ALA-D)Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP)Hereditary coproporphyria (HCP)Variegate porphyria (VP)Chronic:Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT)Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP)Ccongenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP)Hepatoerythropoietic porphyria…